- The summer can be dangerous. Playing or exercising a dog in high temperatures can be fatal for these animals. Prevention is the best way to protect your pet. Do your best to reduce them or eliminate them. Keep pets cool, calm in the hottest part of the day. Help your pet to stay healthy by following these simple guidelines.
Any animal can suffer a heat stroke. However, they are particularly susceptible:
• Animals very young or very old.
• Animals with a history of heat strokes.
• Animals with short snout.
• Animals with excess weight.
• Pets with cardiovascular or respiratory problems.
To prevent heat stroke: :
• Keep clean water available and fresh.
• When the animal is kept in a kennel or enclosure you must make sure that there is ventilation and adequate air circulation.
• When you are away from home must ensure that it has shady places where it can escape.
• Do not allow your pet to make excessive exercise in peak hours.
• NEVER leave your pet locked in a parked car.
Some signs of heatstroke are breathless and salivation, popped out eyes or anxious, it does not respond to your orders, dry skin and very hot, high fever, fast heartbeat, fatigue and weakness.
If the dog suffers a heat stroke, try reducing the temperature gradually immersing it in cold water. Then take your pet dog to the vet immediately.
- This disease is transmitted by a mosquito and can be fatal. In some areas it is recommended for prevention throughout the year.
Distribution of disease in the world: The leishmaniasis or kala-azar persists today in extremely poor, remote and sometimes politically unstable places which is very hard to take care. Patients have little access to affordable medicines and preventive measures. The disease is endemic in 88 nations, where 350 million people are at risk of infection. Almost all the 500 thousand new cases annually from recurrent epidemics occur in rural areas of the Indian subcontinent (India, Nepal, Bangladesh), Brazil and Sudan.
Map Legend (leishmaniose visceral), 1997.
- The vector insect belongs to the genus Lutzomyia in the Americas and Phlebotomus in the rest of the world. During the blood meal the female sandy fly ingests macrophages infected by Leishmania that in the mosquito gut follow the cycle to its development. Then there occurs contamination of humans and animals through the bite of an infected mosquito.
Fleas and Ticks
- Be alert to signs of parasites that are particularly in warmer weather. Talk to your veterinarian about the various methods of prevention of fleas and ticks and their treatment (sprays, collars, etc.). Make sure that the product used is suitable and safe for your pet. If there is a flea infestation it should be promoted to control the parasite in animals and the places he occupied. If you notice a problem with fleas in your house make sure to change the vacuum bag each time it is used. You may need to purchase special products to get rid of fleas. Some ticks can transmit diseases such as the Ricketesioses. Any tick you find on your pet should be ready and completely removed. Use a clamp to remove carefully the tick making sure to completely remove it from your dog´s head and near its mouth. Ask your veterinarian to show you the correct way to remove the ticks
- The hip dysplasia is a hereditary disease, a physical change or malformation in the joints, with higher incidence on articulations between the pelvis and hind limbs, called the hip joints. It affects dogs of all breeds, but mostly large breeds. Depending on the extent, it causes discomfort, pain or even serious problems of locomotion. When the female has dysplasia the chances of offspring having it are large and because of that you should take some care and avoid smooth floors to not get the disease worse. Until the age of three months, it is recommended practice moderate exercise in order to strengthen the muscles of the pelvis, one structure of soft tissue that can be strengthened. When it grows, you should avoid obesity and exercise too much, like: exercise your dog riding a bike, forcing it to follow you. One way to prevent the breeding to transmit this disease for the offspring is to diagnose all the specimens by X-rays and avoid the mating of the affected. A dog that has a mild hip dysplasia can live a normal life, but it should not be used for mating and reproduction. Even if the puppy is normal, and its parents are ill, you should not use it for breeding because its puppies can acquire the disease.
|Classification of Canine Hip Dysplasia
||No signs of hip dysplasia
||Hip joints close to normal
||Not suitable for breeding
||Not suitable for breeding
- Brucellosis is a disease of the reproductive tract that can also cause abortion in females, infection of sexual organs in males and infertility in both.
It is caused by a bacterium which has several different types and it infects pigs, goats, horses, sheep or dogs.
Although there were isolated incidences records of dogs that are infected by contact with cattle infected with another species of bacteria, the name of the bacterium that infects dogs specifically is called Brucella canis.
The contagion is through the relationship with semen or vaginal discharge of an infected male or female (during mating), by contact with breast secretions and aborted babies, and it can also be through contact with urine or other secretions.
In indoor kennels the disease can be transmitted even by air. It can be contagious to humans and it causes symptoms like the flu.
Symptoms of Canine Brucellosis
Females: Abortion between 45 and 55 days after mating, litters with some dead puppies or dying soon after birth, and in other cases they die at the embryo stage and are reabsorbed in such cases and it may seem that the dog did not become pregnant.
Males: Inflammation of the epididymis, testicles or scrotum (leading to testicular atrophy), infertility due to abnormal sperm and reluctance to mate due to the pain caused by inflammation of the reproductive organs. Males can also cause lesions by licking the painful area
Both sexes: swollen lymph nodes. In some cases may show non-specific signs of poor health. In some rare cases the disease causes damage to the kidneys and the nervous system.
And the most dangerous aspect of the disease is that one when the symptoms are not always seen, that is, in many cases an infected dog may have no outward sign. Infected dogs have normal heat cycles and breed normally, and in many cases a dog infected with brucellosis, after aborting all litter, can conceive and give birth to another litter alive thereafter. The problem is that it can infect any male that it is crossed, and its offspring will be likely carriers of the disease and will infect other dogs so on.
The experts estimate that there is up to 6% of the canine population infected and it happens because of the lost dogs that move in big cities.
There is no vaccine and treatment usually consists of prolonged administration of Tetracycline and Streptomycin can not be effective. The only prevention is to have a full breeding tested before crossing.
A dog that had a positive test for brucellosis should not be mated. Bring an infected animal to a breeding program can destroy years of work to establish a line of blood.
The disease is transmitted to a human being who had improper contact with aborted babies. Therefore, if the person has a dog that abort or have stillborn kittens, puppies dead, membranes, placentas, etc. should be handled with gloves and the area must be disinfected completely. The dog should be tested as soon as possible to brucellosis to see if the disease was the cause of the litter of stillborn.
Vision problems of dogs in general are exacerbated with age. Injuries caused by sharp objects, scratches and bites are a constant in veterinary ophthalmology. Corrective surgery of the eyelids in some breeds is performed routinely. The evolution of veterinary science has greatly helped the health of our friends. Most of the problems of the age can be identified through regular monitoring to your veterinarian.
- Glaucoma is characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure due to the formation or obstruction of the drainage angle, pupillary block, luxation or subluxation of the lens. These factors do not cause the elimination of aqueous humor (the substance that fills the camera of the eyes) resulting in increased intraocular pressure. It may also be divided into congenital, primary and secondary.
Eye with Glaucoma
The disease is manifested by clinical signs such as corneal edema, congestion of blood vessels eye, mydriasis (pupil dilation), increased IOP and the eyes and pain.
The therapy aims to decrease the production of aqueous humor or even increase its drainage, and can be clinical or surgical, although the latter does not produce good results. The prognosis of glaucoma is very reserved, and the treatment rarely curative.
- There is opacity in the lens. It can be either small and does not affect vision or may involve the entire lens and cause blindness. Most cataracts, has hereditary and bilateral manifestation. Cataracts can be triggered by diseases such as diabetes and uveitis, through contact with toxic substances and the presence of intraocular tumors.
Cataracts can be classified as congenital, juvenile, adult or senile in dogs. The congenital is present at birth. The juvenile occurs in animals less than two years. The cataracts in adults emerge in dogs with two to six years. Senile cataracts develop in dogs with advanced age and are extremely common. The only treatment for cataracts is surgical removal. The removal of cataract surgery is a very delicate and may be some difference in the procedures for clinic to clinic, according to the technique used. A complete ophthalmologic examination is necessary in order to determine whether the dog is a good candidate for surgery. It is also important to conduct an electroretinogram to test the function of the retina. The administration of medication should be started several days before surgery. The surgical technique of choice is that phacoemulsification that uses vibrations by ultrasound to liquefy the cataract which is then aspirated from the eye through a minimal incision. After surgery, the patient is sent home under observation. The success of surgery is dependent on post-surgery treatment. For cataract surgery is successful, the rest of the eye, except the lens, must be healthy. Sometimes, the lens is so opaque, that does not allow direct examination of the retina. The electroretinogram (ERG) is an electronic test that lets you test the function of the retina.
Eye with Cataract
- Dogs are infected by parasites that cause serious diseases. These can be installed in various organs but the most common are intestinal worms and heartworm (called Dirofilaria immits). The parasite is named Dirofilaria immitis due to its embryonic form that enters in the body of the dog when it is bitten by mosquitoes that have already bitten an infected host. After about 90 to 100 days of infection, the larva develops and lodges in the area between the right atrium and vena cava of the heart. In adulthood, the parasite reaches about 30 cm long and, after 7 to 8 months of infection, we can find microfilariae circulating in the blood.
Symptoms: The main ones are: cough, short of breath, weight loss, dark tongue, exercise intolerance, and when heart failure is already established, there may be failure of the liver and kidneys, and may even appear abdominal distention and liquid lungs. The cough is usually chronic.
Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made based on information obtained from the owner, the clinical examination and laboratory tests that detect the presence of microfilariae in the bloodstream, the chest radiograph, electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram, and tests to study the function of kidney and liver in later stages. It is important to note that the diagnosis can be done and should be done with precision and once the presenting illness the forms of treatment should be exposed. Treatment can be directed to the extinction of adult worms (adulticide treatment) or microfilariae (microfilaricide treatment) associated with the symptomatic treatment of heart failure.
Finally, we can say that the best way to treat canine heartworm disease is through prevention.